Gaur Gum - The Multifaced Secret Ingredient.

What Is Guar Gum?

Guar gum is a crucial agrochemical derived from the seed endosperm of the guar plant. The seed of cluster bean contains about 30-33% gum in the endosperm. It has a strong hydrogen bond-forming tendency in water, which makes it a novel thickener and stabiliser. Aqueous solutions of guar gum are very viscous.

Properties Of Guar Gum

  • Guar gum is a tangible high molecular mass polysaccharide comprised of galactose and mannose units connected through glycosidic linkages.
  • Colour of guar gum powders differs from white to cream colour.
  • Guar gum powder and solution is odourless and has a bland taste and flavour.
  • Guar gum powder diffuses rapidly in the cold as well as in hot water. It is insoluble in organic solvents.
  • Guar gum powder is insignificantly acidic in nature and pH of 1% solution varies from 5.4 to7.7.

Because of these properties, it has extensive applications in industries like food, pharmaceutical, textile, oil, paint, paper, explosive, cosmetics and oil well drilling. Another reason for its popularity in the industry is its low cost. Its conservative nature makes it accessible in gums and stabilisers industry.

General composition of guar gum - Constituent Percentage

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  • Galactomannan 75–85
  • Moisture 8.0–14
  • Protein (N x 6.25) 5.0–6.0
  • Fibre 2.0–3.0
  • Ash 0.5–1.0

Gaur Gum In Food Industry

In the food industry, it has comprehensive applications in ice cream, sauce, beverages, bakery, meat industry & supplementation as dietary fibre. As a food additive guar gum binds, emulsifies water, prevents ice crystal formation in frozen products, stabilises, moisturises, thickens and suspends many liquid-solid systems. Everyday food items like fruit drinks, ice cream, cake mixes, sauces, cheese spreads, and salad dressings usually contain gaur gum in the amount of <1% of the food weight. Its consumption reduces the risk of heart diseases by lowering the cholesterol level in body, control diabetes and maintains the bowel movement in human beings.

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Other Applications

Industrial applications of guar gum are feasible because of its ability to form hydrogen bonding with the water molecules which results in being used as thickener and stabiliser. The present commercial value of guar gum is high because of its usage in oil and gas well mining, especially hydraulic fracturing in which high pressure is applied to crack rock. Guar gum makes the fracturing fluid thicker so that it can move sand into fractured rock keeping the remains open due to the presence of sand, which forms a path for gas or oil to flow into the borewell.

The demand for guar gum has intensified during the last several decades due to the expansion of various derivatives of guar gum like cationic & anionic derivatives. India produces over 850,000 tons, or 80% of the total guar produced all over the world. 75% of the guar gum or derivatives manufactured in India are exported, mainly to the USA and to European countries.