Fixed Price Leads To Increased Income.
Since the contract binds them, prices fix occurs before the harvest securing farmer's income. As these large organisations require yield over a long period and in large quantities, if the conditions are favourable, the income of the farmers tend to increase more than twice.
International Standards & Regulations
In most cases of contract farming the organisations export their products, they have to adhere to international standards and regulations. They make sure to implement all guideline right from the start of the supply chain. With country-specific standards now in place, organisations follow more rigorous guidance. To maintain such measures, the organisation transfer technical know-how to farmers to enable efficient farming methods, including organic farming to the farmers they are contracting.
Case Study - Hindustan Lever
Hindustan Lever issued contracts to 400 farmers in northern India to grow selected varieties of tomatoes for paste. A study of the project confirmed that production yields and farmers' incomes increased as a result of the use of hybrid seeds and the availability of an assured market. An analysis of the returns and profits of the contracted farmers compared with farmers who grew tomatoes for the open market showed that yields of the farmers under contract were 64 per cent higher than those outside the project.
Farmers generally rely on crop diversification and other sources of income. But large corporations might tend to force farmers to mono-crop. The setbacks in case of crop failure have devastating effects on the family of the farmers.
Lack Of Crop Rotation Due To Contract Requirements
To maintain soil nutrient cycle and health, farmers need to rotate crops at required intervals. When farmers mono-crop, it strips certain soil nutrients, which makes it challenging to grow individual plants in the future and eventually leads to a decrease in soil health and quality.
Technology & Crop Compatibility
While corporations who contract, introduce sophisticated machinery and technology within the already existing farming techniques, it may lead to local workers losing their jobs at the farm. Farmlands get used for food crops in most developing countries. They may seem more suitable to farm as they would look more fertile for large scale production. But the local farmers may not have the knowledge to grow and harvest these crops.
The various agrarian food are ideal for applications under contract farming like tomato pulp, organic dyes, poultry, pulpwood, mushrooms, dairy processing, edible oils, exotic vegetables, baby corn farming, basmati rice, medicinal plants, potato for preparing chips and wafers, onions, mandarin oranges, durum wheat, flowers and orchids, etc.
Contract farming can start up new businesses which would otherwise be unavailable to small farmers. Contract farming should be regulated by a written contract which spells out the details and obligations of both the company and the out - growers. It should be written clearly and understandably with out-growers given sufficient time to review it;
Contracts must be transparent about how the prices are determined, the duration of the project and how production inputs and other services are to be supplied and used by farmers; Must contain build in a clause for the renegotiation of the contract at agreed intervals, and specify the sharing of production and market risks among the parties; The government must act as a third party, or mediator, between the parties and not, be a spokesman for the company sponsor and also ensure farmers’ rights are implemented with appropriate legislation.